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Sometimes are necessary alternative qualitative methods to focus groups or interviews, the most common in marketing studies. The ethnographic approach is suitable in lifestyles and behaviour studies and when you want an approach with minimal external intervention for avoiding to skew results or for not losing the spontaneity of the studied target.

Below are various techniques that allow to know the behaviour, attitudes, interests and lifestyles.

Observation of individuals / groups in their real environment

Non-Participant Observation. Video recording of a person or group in a usual situation or time without the presence of observers and without providing instructions or forms of action (at home, in meetings with friends ...). A comprehensive analysis of discourse is performed (its content, form, style ...) about behaviour, body language, relational environment (aesthetics, icons,...)... Establishing long periods of observation (for the accommodation to the presence of the camera) and getting more diversity and number of behaviours.

Participant Observation. Video recording of a person or Group in a usual situation or time with the presence of an observer who is limited only to introduce several basic themes. The observer remains in a neutral and passive position allowing the discourse to flow freely. It has the disadvantage of altering external behaviour of the individual or group but the advantage is that it ensures reflecting the views on specific issues.

Psychological portraits. Identification of lifestyles and personality from the observation of different elements of the environment complemented with ethnographic interviews in the environment of the individual (in his room, in meeting places with friends,...).

Diary Analysis. Analysis of the information collected by the own individual about…

• The events that he’s lived throughout the day: from the most transcendental to the trivialities that have taken up part of his time.

• Things that have interested him, called his attention, surprised him or have generated any kind of emotion.

• Collage, newspaper clippings, magazines, ...

Tracking of communications. Discourse analysis of common written communications: emails, messages to mobile phones, forums / chats on the Internet.